Introduction- IoT Internet of what?
Machine-to-Machine A communication style that emphasizes data transfer between large (sometimes) machines that uses near instantaneous data transfer to facilitate higher throughput and pre-discharge problems.
The Internet of Things (IoT) was invented in 1999 and is a natural file extension of the internet to everyday objects. Accordingly, IoT is a new area of technology written on "activators" such as networks, embedded devices, and artificial intelligence. Moreover, the IoT standard is designed by the same institutions that helped the growth of the Internet, i.e. IEEE a few special players along with the IETF.
The Internet of Everything Another term for IoT, invented and currently used by Cisco, implies that the IoT is not only made up of things but also data, process, and people.
The Industrial Internet of Things is an umbrella term for M2M technology when looking only at shiny machines.
Things in IoT (Objects)
A mechanism such as opening a valve or component responsible for channel transport and control.
A wireless network device that acts as a portal for devices to be connected to the local area network.
A device is a physical hardware or unit with one or more computing performance.
Small transmitters that connect to Bluetooth and Bluetooth low Energy (BLE) devices such as smartphones or tracked packets.
A "translating hub" that enables them to understand the communication, transmission and communication between two computers or devices.
A hardware device that connects other data-transmitting devices to a central station.
Integration of computing, networking and physical operations with feedback loops where physical operations affect computations and vice versa are also valid.
Describes technologies that allow a smart card, mobile phone, or other device to wirelessly - contactlessly - connect to an electronic reader, usually to make a payment.
A digital replica of physical assets, processes, people, places, systems, and devices that can be used for various purposes and integrate historical machine data into the digital model.
Using GPS or RFID technology to create a virtual geofence in which devices can operate.
GIS / Geographical Information System
A system designed to capture, process, analyze, manage and present spatial or geographic data.
GPS / Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System is a technology created by the US Government that allows location services.
GNSS / Global Navigation Satellite System
A constellation of satellites giving signals from space that transmit positioning and timing data to GNSS receivers.
The application science of tactile sensation and control to interaction with computer applications.
HAV / Hardware Assisted Virtualization
Using the physical components of the computer to support software that creates and manages virtual machines (VMs).
IMU / Inertial unit of measure
A device that measures and reports a body, such as the force, angular velocity, and sometimes the magnetic field surrounding the body, inherent in a drone.
LIDAR / Light Perception and Shift
Remote sensing technology that uses the pulse from a laser to collect measurements and then can be used to create 3D models and maps of objects and environments.
Engineering of both electrical and mechanical systems, involving a combination of robotics, electronics, computers, telecommunications, systems, control and product engineering.
RADAR / Radio Sensing and Switching
A sensing system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle or speed of objects.
A method for tracking an asset using GPS and onboard diagnostics to record movements on a computerized map.
How to Connect IoT Objects?
IoT Communication Hardware and Software
Embedded SIM (also known as eSIM or eUICC) is a secure element designed to remotely manage multiple mobile network operator subscriptions and comply with GSMA specifications.
ICCID / Integrated Circuit Card Identifier
Unique serial number built into the SIM card.
IMSI / International Mobile Subscriber Identity
A unique number, usually fifteen digits, associated with identifying a GSM-connected device.
A small electronic device embedded in objects, machines, and things that connect to wireless networks that send and receive data.
IP address / Internet Protocol Address
It is a unique naming number assigned to a network, specifically a computer (or other device) connected to the Internet.
A hardware device that enables a computer to send and receive data over a telephone line or cable or satellite connection.
Router / Router
A hardware device designed to receive, analyze, and move incoming IP packets to another network.
SOC / System on chip / Single-board computer
A microchip with all the necessary electronics and parts for a particular system such as a smartphone or wearable computer on a single integrated circuit.
SIM / Subscriber identity module
A stored smart card containing ID, location, phone number, network authorization data, and security keys installed on a wireless device.
A modem that bypasses the phone system and connects to a wireless network where it can directly access the Internet connection.
Mobile Networks and Providers
(also known as C2K or IMT-MC) is a family of 3G mobile technology standards used to send voice, data, and signal data between mobile phones and mobile sites.
GPRS / General Packet Radio Service
GPRS is a packet-oriented mobile data service on the global mobile communication (GSM) system of the 2G cellular communication system.
Global System for GSM / Mobile Communication
It is a standard that defines the protocols of the second generation (2G) digital cellular networks developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and used by mobile phones, first distributed in Finland in July. 1991.
HSPA (+), HSUPA, HSDPA
High Speed Packet Access, High Speed Uplink Packet Access, High Speed Downlink Packet Access A 3G mobile broadband communication technology. HSPA networks offer a maximum throughput of 14.4 Mbps per cell.
MNO / Mobile Network Operator
A mobile network operator owns and operates a cellular network and provides services on it.
MVNO / Mobile Virtual Network Operator
A wireless network service provider to customers without having a wireless network infrastructure.
MVNE / Mobile Virtual Network Enabler
A company that provides network infrastructure and related services such as provisioning, management and OSS / BSS so that mobile virtual network operators (MVNOs) can provide services to their customers.
UMTS / Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
UMTS is the third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard.
Mobile Network Technologies
Second generation cellular technology that promotes call and text encryption as well as data services such as SMS, picture messages and MMS.
Third generation cellular technology that provides faster data transmission, video calling and mobile internet.
The fourth generation cellular technology was launched in 2008, enabling HD mobile TV, video conferencing and other applications.
The current cellular technology generation, which was launched in 2008, offers higher speeds up to 100 Gb / s, lower latency and higher device density per cell.
Long-term evolution 4G wireless broadband technology standard that offers mobile device users greater network capacity and speed.
Mobile / Cellular
A cellular network is a radio network distributed over land through cells, each of which has a fixed location transceiver known as a base station.
A form of virtualization that allows multiple logical networks to run on a shared physical network infrastructure and helps ensure maximum network utilization and optimum connectivity for each application.
Roaming allows a traveling wireless device to stay connected by visiting another network when it leaves its location.
Radio Communication Technologies
One of the most common communication technologies in the world. It provides data transmission with radio waves over a short distance.
BLE / Bluetooth Low Energy
A new iteration of Bluetooth technology aimed at servicing IoT devices.
LAN / Local area network
A network that connects devices in a limited area with locally managed network equipment. It is most often seen as a link between two devices via an Ethernet cable.
A local network topology where the infrastructure connects directly, dynamically, and non-hierarchically to as many nodes as possible and cooperates with each other to send data to customers.
MIMO / Multiple input multiple output
A method of multiplying the capacity of a radio link with multiple transmit and receive antennas in a radio.
NFC / Near Field Communication
A set of communication protocols that allow two electronic devices, one of which is usually a portable device such as a smartphone, to communicate by bringing them within about 4 cm (2 inches) of each other.
RAN / Radio Access Network
A network that connects individual devices to other parts of a network via radio. Terrestrial Trunked Radio.
TETRA, formerly known as Trans-European Trunked Radio, is a European professional mobile radio and two-way radio feature that offers secure voice and data transmission.
vRAN / Virtualized RAN
A method that virtualizes the network functions in the RAN using platforms based on general purpose processors aiming to provide greater flexibility and cost efficiency.
WAN / Wide Area Network
A network that spans a wide geographic area.
WSN / Wireless Sensor Network
A wireless network composed of spatially distributed autonomous devices that use sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions.
WiFi / Wireless internet
A technology that allows wireless device communication over certain radio brands. WiFi, which is not an acronym, is the most widely used technology for wireless Internet connectivity.
WLAN / Wireless Local Area Network
This network works the same as a LAN, except that a device can connect to the network wirelessly.
A communication technology that is generally used in security automation and smart homes, enabling it to communicate from device to device due to low energy radio waves.
LPWAN / Low Power Wide Area Network
A WAN that operates using low bitrate and is often incorporated or addressed to smart devices.
A technology that provides data communication over low power WLAN, typically used for low data rate, low power communication in control or sensor networks.
EC-GSM / Extended coverage GSM IoT
Standard based Low Power Wide Area technology. It is based on EGPRS and is designed as a high capacity, long range, low energy and low complexity cellular system for IoT communication.
Long Range, low power wireless standard aimed at providing a cellular style low data rate communication network. Targeting the M2M and IoT market, LoRa is suitable for intermittent low data rate connectivity over significant distances.
LTE-M is used to indicate the LTE-MTC standard defined by the GSMA, more specifically LTE CatM1. LTE-M is Low Power Wide Area technology that enables the reuse of an LTE installed base in an extended coverage area.
NB-IoT / Narrowband IoT
A narrowband radio technology specifically designed for the Internet of Things (IoT), hence the name. The specific focus of this standard is indoor coverage, low cost, long battery life and a large number of devices. This technology can be deployed in GSM and LTE spectrum.
Sigfox is a cellular style system that allows remote devices to connect using ultra-narrowband, low power low data rate and low cost communication for remote connected devices.
How do objects communicate in IoT?
Communication protocols used in IoT
Lightweight M2M / Lightweight M2M
A device management protocol designed for the demands of sensor networks and machine-to-machine (M2M) environments.
Serial communication protocol for use with programmable logic controllers (PLCs) used to connect industrial electronic devices.
MQTT / Message Queuing Telemetri Transport
It is a protocol designed to connect physical devices and networks with applications and middleware, and is an ideal connection protocol for IoT and M2M.
MTC / Machine Type Communication
A descriptive term for fully automated data creation, modification, processing and operation among intelligent machines, with little or no human intervention.
Artificial Intelligence / Artificial intelligence
AI / Artificial intelligence
The theory and development of computer systems can normally perform tasks that require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, and decision making. AI also enables machines to learn from experience.
It's a part of computer science that works to make computer science see, describe, and process images similarly to human vision.
A machine learning technique that teaches computers to learn by example.
Machine learning is a data analysis method that automates the construction of analytical models based on the idea that systems can learn from data, identify patterns, and make decisions with minimal human intervention.
A computer system modeled on the human brain and nervous system designed to help machines look more like humans.
Computing and Cloud
API / Application Programming Interface
A set of routine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software and applications. An API easily and securely connects your business processes, services, content and data to channel partners, internal teams and independent developers. APIs are becoming a de facto standard by which companies exchange data and develop consistent cross-channel customer experiences.
APN / Access Point Name
A gateway (mostly the Internet) that translates communication between telecommunications and computer networks.
Internet-based computing that allows data access from different computers or devices. Often the cloud itself is thought to store data, but data is stored on physical computers that allow access to data over the Internet at any time.
A model in which computing is largely or entirely performed on distributed device nodes known as smart devices or edge devices, as opposed to taking place in a central cloud environment.
Firmware / FOTA
A specific class of computer software that provides low level control for specific hardware of the device. FOTA refers to the ability to upgrade firmware over the air.
Fog computing, also known as edge computing or fogging, is a term created by Cisco that refers to extending cloud computing to the edge of a company's network.
A type of data stream programming in which program steps communicate with each other by transmitting data through some type of channel. The channels are managed by the larger system, freeing the connected components to focus on input input and output generation.
Hybrid cloud / Hybrid cloud
A cloud computing environment that uses a mix of on-premises, private cloud and third-party, public cloud services organized between the two platforms.
Java / JSON
OTA / Over-the-Air
OTA provisioning means a variety of methods for deploying new software, configuration settings, and even updating encryption keys to various devices.
Describes software in which the original source code is freely available and may be redistributed or modified.
Peer-to-peer computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that divides tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged and co-contributors in the application.
Also referred to as a RESTful web service, a RESTful API is based on representational state transfer (REST) technology, an architectural style, and a communication approach commonly used in developing web services.
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is a communication protocol used to exchange information between various operating systems using Extensible Markup Language (XML).
Large amounts of data that traditional technologies cannot handle their transfer or analysis. Some IoT technologies specialize in the transport and transmission of big data, as they are seen as key to large companies' goal of maximizing efficiency.
A growing list of registers called blocks, linked using cryptography. For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network that is collectively tied to a protocol for inter-node communication and validation of new blocks.
Data Filtration / Filtering / Data Filtering
Describes a wide range of strategies for refining data sets; thus, they provide what a user or group of users needs without including other data that may be repetitive, irrelevant, or even sensitive.
A data exchanger is someone who takes large amounts of big data and concentrates it on information that businesses can apply.
DDDM (Data Driven Decision Making)
A corporate governance approach that values decisions that can be backed up with verifiable data.
An open source distributed compute framework that manages data processing and storage for big data applications running on clustered systems. Common computing, but also ubiquitous computing use. The computational capability is embedded in everyday objects to enable end users to communicate and perform effectively, minimizing their needs to interact with computers.
Central control and data collection A computer system for real-time data collection, analysis and control.
TCP / IP
Internet Protocol package is a computer network model and a set of communication protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks.
Monitoring and Identification with IoT
IMEI / International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI)
A unique ID or serial number that all cell phones and smartphones have. It is normally 15 digits long.
International Article Number / EAN
A barcode symbology and numbering system used in global trade to identify a particular retail product type, in a specific packaging configuration, from a specific manufacturer.
MEID / Mobile Equipment Identifier
CDMA2000 is a globally unique number that identifies a physical piece of mobile equipment.
RFID / Radio frequency identification
RFID devices are used for data transmission and capture via radio waves.
An improved version of a barcode. Unlike traditional barcodes, a smart tag can contain much more information about a product. Smart tags are in the form of RFID tags, Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) tags or the most common QR codes
UID / Unique Identifier
A number given to any device in any system to be able to interact with it.
URI / Uniform Resource Identifier
A string of characters explicitly specifying a particular resource.
IoT and Data Security
A private network of computers affected by malware and controlled as a group without the owners' knowledge.
GDPR / General Data Protection Regulation
This came into effect in May 2018 and sets rules for controlling and processing personally identifiable information.
A secure network protocol package that authenticates and encrypts data packets sent over the internet protocol network. IPSec uses encryption security services to protect communications over IP networks.
ICS / Industrial control systems
A common term used to describe different control systems and associated instruments, including devices, systems, networks, and controls used to operate or automate industrial processes.
IAM / Identity and access management
A framework for business processes that facilitate the management of electronic or digital identities.
PKI / Public Key Infrastructure
The set of roles, policies and procedures required to create, manage, distribute, use, store and revoke digital certificates and manage public key encryption. PKI is a critical enabler of secure communications, data and money exchange.
TLS / Transport Layer Security
An encryption protocol used to protect data transferred between computers, allowing both computers to agree to encrypt information the way they understand it.
X as a Service
Salary (Management-as-a-Service) / Management as a service
Management of a network and systems is presented to the customer in a web interface. In a sense, it is a special version of SaaS where the first "S" was the management software.
IaaS / Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
A form of cloud computing that provides virtualized computing resources over the Internet.
PaaS / Platform as a service (PaaS)
Cloud computing model in which hardware and software tools are delivered to users over the internet.
Describes industries that use their products to sell a product as a service, often as a service for a recurring subscription, rather than selling one product at a time.
SaaS / Software as a service
A software license and delivery model licensed on a subscription basis and hosted centrally.
PaaP / Platform as a product
It is a model of using a ready-made platform (generally IoT platform) as a product. The platforms that provide this offer a feature called white-label and make it possible to customize the platform from top to bottom for your brand.
On-Premise / On-premise software
On-premises software is a type of software distribution model that is loaded and operated from a customer's on-premises server and computing infrastructure. Uses the organization's local computing resources and requires only a licensed or purchased copy of software from the software vendor.
As its connection with the Internet of Things becomes interconnected, it becomes increasingly difficult to draw boundaries between industries and business verticals. Smart things are produced in smart factories and distributed by the smart supply chain. Once upon a time, these things create smart buildings, smart vehicles, and smart people, too. These cities are connected to their neighbors.
Facilitates the health and well-being of patients and the development of professional medical practice through the use of information management and information and communication technology.
HMI / Human-machine interface
A user interface or dashboard that connects a person to a machine, system or device. It is most commonly used in an industrial process context.
M2P / Machine to Person
Describes the machine to the connections that occur when information is transferred between a machine and a person.
PAN / Personal area network
Interconnection of information technology devices within an individual range of persons, typically ten meters.
This concept includes data collection technology to the characteristics of a person's daily life. Inputs such as food consumed and ambient air quality are collected, conditions such as mood and blood oxygen levels are monitored, and performance such as mental awareness and physical fitness are evaluated.
Wearables / Wearable technologies
A term used for any IoT device designed to be worn by a human or animal.
Connected Buildings and Homes
A home with smart products that can be controlled, customized and automated remotely. This includes controls for temperature, lighting, and locks. When used in commercial construction, this is sometimes referred to as 'Intelligent Building'.
In autonomous homes, functionality ranges from security systems and climate control to automatic televisions, dishwashers, washing machines and other appliances. Apple's HomeKit and Google's Nest are popular apps.
Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie)
A non-proprietary data format for publishing a subset of building information models (BIM) that focuses on presenting asset data as distinct from geometric information.
Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning Technology that provides interior and vehicle environmental comfort.
A wireless optical network technology that uses light emitting diodes (LEDs) for data transmission. It is claimed to be 100 times faster than standard WiFi.
They are everyday items to which small, wireless computing devices are attached, typically using Bluetooth, to allow data to be collected and transmitted.
Usually a connected (usually WiFi) LED bulb that allows for remote control, automation, and customization.
A meter that measures electricity, gas or water consumption in a house or building. It is called 'smart' because it responds to usage and increases or decreases the flow according to the general consumption data obtained from the utility and individuals in the building.
Voice activated software agents that can perform tasks or services to an individual. Sometimes called virtual assistants.
One of two things: • The device used to measure the electricity usage in a home (more often referred to as a “smart meter” but sometimes used interchangeably) • An electricity company that can work with smart meters and smart homes to provide a more customized and environmentally friendly experience to the consumer and save on wasted electricity costs as with traditional electricity grids.
A city or metropolitan area that uses data and technology to create efficiency, increase sustainability, create economic development, and increase quality of life factors for people living and working in the city.
A connected vehicle (see also Customer Example Volvo) is equipped with Internet access and usually a wireless local area network.
ADAS / Advanced Driver Assistance Systems
Systems to assist the driver in the driving process. When designed with a secure Human Machine Interface (HMI), they should increase vehicle safety and, more generally, road safety.
They are tools that guide themselves without human intervention. Also known as driverless car and self driving car.
Linked and autonomous vehicles.
The European on-board system that automatically alerts the emergency services of a traffic accident and will also inform rescue workers about the exact location of the accident site.
Remote sensing technology that uses the pulse from a laser to collect measurements and then can be used to create 3D models and maps of objects and environments.
A sensing system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle or speed of objects.
Self driving vehicle
V2X (Vehicle to anything)
It is the term used for the communication system of the vehicle where information from sensors and other sources passes the road leading to fully autonomous driving through high-bandwidth, low-latency, high-reliability links.
V2C (Vehicle to Cloud)
A secure tool to cloud the framework for virtualized and on-demand service delivery.
V2V (Vehicle to Vehicle)
Wireless transmission of data between motor vehicles. The purpose of V2V communication is to prevent accidents by enabling vehicles in transit to send position and speed data to each other over a temporary network.
UBI / Usage-based insurance
Also known as pay when you drive (PAYD), it is a type of vehicle insurance in which the costs depend on the type of vehicle used and mileage measured by time, distance, behavior and location.
OBD / Internal diagnostics
An automobile term referring to a car's self-diagnosis and reporting capability. OBD systems provide the vehicle owner or repair technician with access to the status of various vehicle subsystems.
TSP / Telematics Service Provider
A company (or function) that maintains vehicle manufacturers needs to provide bus and audio to the vehicles produced.
ECU / Electronic Control Unit
A general term for integrated systems that control one or more of the electrical system or subsystems in a transport vehicle.
ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems)
Advanced applications that aim to provide innovative services on different modes of transport and traffic management (without including intelligence in this way) and enable various users to have better information and to use transport networks in a safer, more coordinated and "smart" manner.
A machine-readable code in the form of a pattern of numerical and variable width parallel lines printed on an item and used specifically for stock control.
An unbroken cold chain is an uninterrupted series of refrigeration production, storage and distribution activities, with associated equipment and logistics maintaining the desired low temperature range.
EDI / Electronic data interchange
Transfer of structured data from one computer application to another by electronic means and with minimal human intervention. It also describes the exchange of electronic documents between businesses and organizations, including government agencies.
A function that enables companies to eliminate or minimize risks associated with vehicle investment, increase efficiency, productivity, and reduce overall transportation and personnel costs (see also fleet management in a mix of large and complex IoT ecosystem)
The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System is deployed in many of the busy waterways in the USA to provide key environmental parameters including water levels, currents, waves, salinity, bridge span (air gap), winds, air and water temperature, and visibility.
SKU / Stock Storage Unit
The product and service identification code, usually displayed as a machine-readable barcode that helps track the product for inventory.
SCE / Supply Chain Application
It focuses on executive applications, including warehouse management systems (WMSs), transportation management systems (TMSs), global trade management (GTM) systems, and other executive applications such as real-time decision support systems and supply chain visibility.
A twenty-foot equivalent unit is a complete unit of cargo capacity used to describe the capacities of container ships and container terminals.
A system that records movement intervals from shipping origin to destination.
Connected manufacturing (Smart Factory) / Industry 4.0
AMI / Advanced Measurement Infrastructure
A digital architecture that allows two-way communication between a smart meter and a provider via an IP Address.
AMR / Automatic Meter Reading
Technology for automatically collecting consumption, diagnostic and status data from water meters or energy meters and transferring this data to a central database for billing.
BOM / Bill of Materials
Comprehensive list of parts, products, assemblies, and other materials required to create a product.
CAD / Computer aided design
A technology that designs a product and documents the design process. CAD can streamline the manufacturing process by transferring detailed diagrams of a product's materials, processes, tolerances, and dimensions through product-specific contracts.
Connected utilities and smart grids
An auxiliary feed network that uses digital communication technology to detect and react to local changes in use.
CPS / Cyber physical production systems
Systems that connect physical and digital assets are connected, monitored and managed by computer programming and algorithms.
ERP / Enterprise Resource Planning
Integrated management of core business processes, often in real time and mediated by software and technology.
The name given to the current automation and data exchange trend in production technologies. It includes cyber-physical systems, internet of things, cloud computing and cognitive computing. (see also IoT transforming manufacturing and manufacturers)
Digital transformation is the strategic adoption of digital technologies. It is used to increase processes and productivity, provide better customer and employee experiences, manage business risk and control costs. Digital transformation represents numerous tools, solutions and processes. An effective strategy is one that is customized for each unique organization.
JIT (Just In Time)
An inventory management method where materials, goods and labor are planned to arrive or renew exactly when needed in the production process.
A visual system for managing the business as it progresses through a process. Kanban visualizes both the process and the actual work going through this process.
MES / Production Management System
An information system that connects, monitors and controls complex production systems and data flows in the factory production system.
PLM / Product Lifecycle Management
Managing the entire life cycle of a product, from engineering design and production to service and disposal of manufactured products.
QMS / Quality management system
A formal system documenting processes, procedures and responsibilities to achieve quality policies and objectives.
Explain the environment in which computers are responsible for decision making. In a smart production environment, physical and digital interconnect and communicate to improve production.
A wide production category to optimize the production process.
A meter that measures electricity, gas or water consumption in a house or building. It is called 'smart' because it responds to usage and increases or decreases flow according to the general consumption data obtained from the utility and individuals in the building.
The Generation Partnership Project is a joint project established in 1998 that aims to develop globally acceptable features for third (and future) generation mobile systems.
Automotive Edge Account Consortium An organization focused on driving the network and calculating the infrastructure needs of automotive big data.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers calls itself "the world's largest technical professional community". It aims to promote standardization through international electronic development.
International Telecommunication Union United Nations agency specializing in information and communication technologies - ICT. ITU allocates global radio spectrum and satellite orbits and develops technical standards that allow networks and technologies to be interconnected seamlessly.
The GSM Association represents the interests of mobile operators around the world, bringing together nearly 800 operators with more than 250 companies in the broad mobile ecosystem, including mobile phone and device manufacturers, software companies, equipment suppliers and Internet companies and organizations in neighboring industry sectors. GSMA organizes the biggest annual event in the mobile industry, the GSMA Mobile World Congress.
The World Wide Web Consortium is the World Wide Web's major international standards organization (abbreviated WWW or W3).